Where did the cantus come from?

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Cantus firmus, Latin for fixed song, was first developed in the Medieval Period. Originally, it was a chant foundation above which another melody was composed. Gradually more melodies were added, the cantus firmus was ornamented with additional notes, and by the Renaissance, a very complex polyphony had evolved.

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One may also ask, Is cantus firmus a chant?

Cantus Firmus, in literal translation “firm chant” is a fixed melody taken from plainsong (which later became known as Gregorian chant), that composers of the 14th through 17th century used as the basis of polyphonic composition, against which other tunes are set in counterpoint.

Likewise, How did organum developed?. Sometime during the ninth century, music theorists in the Church began experimenting with the idea of singing two melodic lines simultaneously at parallel intervals, usually at the fourth, fifth, or octave. The resulting hollow-sounding music was called organum and very slowly developed over the next hundred years.

Also to know, Who was the master of the motet during the Renaissance?

Josquin used the old cantus firmus style, but he also developed the motet style that characterized the 16th century after him. His motets, as do his masses, show an approach to the modern sense of tonality.

What is a cantus firmus quizlet?

Cantus Firmus. an existing melody used as the basis for a polyphonic composition often taken from a gregorian chant. Fixed Melody. Humanism. Renaissance movement based on the revival of ancient Greek and Roman culture and to study this pertaining to human knowlege and experience through independent thought.

35 related questions found

What is the meaning of cantus firmus?

Cantus firmus, (Latin: “fixed song”, ) plural Cantus Firmi, preexistent melody, such as a plainchant excerpt, underlying a polyphonic musical composition (one consisting of several independent voices or parts).

What is a cantus firmus and how were they used in the Renaissance?

One melody, usually a chant, served as a foundation for a second melody to move in a quicker, more florid manner above it. This chant was called the cantus firmus which is Latin for fixed song. The cantus firmus is any preexisting melody that is used as the foundation for a polyphonic composition.

Who was the first woman composer?

Hildegard of Bingen (1098-1179)

She's the first identifiable woman composer in the history of Western Music. German Benedictine abbess, Hildegard of Bingen, who spent most of her 80-plus years shut away in an obscure hilltop monastery in Germany's Rhineland.

Who invented the motet?

From its roots in the Notre Dame church and initial innovations made by Guillaume de Machaut in the late Medieval period, the motet was perfected by great Renaissance composers Josquin des Prez and, later, Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina.

Where was organum invented?

Organum is an early Medieval form of plainsong, or plainchant (e.g. Gregorian chanting) that has it's origins from 9th Century France. In it's beginnings, organum was sung with at least one voice added to create harmony, usually a perfect fifth or fourth.

What are the 3 types of organum?

Terms in this set (6)
  • parallel organum. no real second voice exists/parallel motion/two voices usually at a perfect 5th or 4th.
  • converging organum. oblique motion/both start on the same note, separate, and then come back together at the end.
  • free organum. contrary motion.
  • melismatic organum. ...
  • organum purum. ...
  • discant.

What did Gregorian chants organum add?

Organum was a significant development, as it added a second line of melody to the single notes of the Gregorian chant.

What was the first type of polyphony in chant?

The first type of polyphony was Gregorian chant. Polyphonic music required specialized singers as compared to the more simple communal singing of plainchant. The lower voice in organum sings the fixed melody in extremely long notes. Polyphony was universally accepted in medieval religious communities.

Which voice in an Isorhythmic motet carries the Gregorian chant cantus firmus?

Tenor part became a "cantus firmus" that means that the tenor part designates an existing melody, usually plainchant, on which a new polyphonic work is based.

What is the meaning of cantus?

1 : cantus firmus. 2 : the principal melody or voice.

When was the motet created?

The motet began in the early 13th century as an application of a new text (i.e., “word”) to older music. Specifically, the text was added to the wordless upper-voice parts of descant clausulae.

Is a motet is longer than a mass?

Motet A motet is a polyphonic work with four or five voice parts singing one religious text. They are similar to madrigals, but with an important difference: motets are religious works, while madrigals are usually love songs. Mass A musical mass is like a motet, only longer.

Who is considered the greatest composer of the fourteenth century?

8. Guillaume de Machaut (1300-1377) De Machaut was one of the central figures of the Ars Nova movement and perhaps the most important composer of the 14th Century.

Who is the most famous female composer?

10 Trailblazing Female Composers You Need to Know
  • Hildegard of Bingen (1098 – 1179)
  • Barbara Strozzi (1619-1677)
  • Marianna Martines (1744 – 1812)
  • Fanny Mendelssohn (1805 – 1847)
  • Clara Wieck Schumann (1819-1896)
  • Guadalupe Olmedo (1853 – 1889)
  • Ethel Smyth (1858-1944)
  • Amy Beach (1867-1944)

Who is a famous female composer?

1. Hildegard von Bingen (1098-1179) Not only a composer of some 70 works, Hildegard was a writer, mystic and visionary.

Who is the most influential composer?

Top 10 Most Influential Composers
  • Guillaume de Machaut (1300 – 1377) ...
  • Johann Sebastian Bach (1685 – 1750) ...
  • George Gershwin (1898 – 1937) ...
  • Wolfgang Amadé Mozart (1754 – 1792) ...
  • Ludwig van Beethoven (1770 – 1827) ...
  • Richard Wagner (1813-1883) ...
  • Mikhail Glinka (1804 – 1857)

How did Renaissance composers unify the mass?

In Renaissance music, the cyclic mass was a setting of the Ordinary of the Roman Catholic Mass, in which each of the movements – Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, and Agnus Dei – shared a common musical theme, commonly a cantus firmus, thus making it a unified whole.

What does Cantus mean in music?

Introduction. A cantus firmus is a preexistent melody that forms the basis of a larger musical work. Source melodies in the cantus firmus tradition have generally been selected from the vast corpus of plainchant, but secular tunes also provide a supply of monophony for use.

What does polyphony mean in music?

Polyphony, in music, the simultaneous combination of two or more tones or melodic lines (the term derives from the Greek word for “many sounds”). ... A subcategory of polyphony, called homophony, exists in its purest form when all the voices or parts move together in the same rhythm, as in a texture of block chords.